Medical Articles

The New Mystery Canine Respiratory Illness

Veterinarians nationwide are seeing an increase in the new canine infectious respiratory disease. Predominately in Portland, Oregon, The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has received over 200 reports of atypical canine infectious respiratory disease from local veterinarians. Currently, there are no known cases in upstate New York. While the cause of this new respiratory disease is still unknown, veterinarians suspect this is a viral disease since the administration of antibiotics doesn’t seem to resolve the illness. As pet owners, here…

How to Prepare your Patient for Dermatology Referral

How to Prepare Your Patient for Dermatology Referral Amy Schnedeker, DVM, MS, DACVD Dermatologic diseases, especially allergies, are one of the most common conditions seen in general practice, with frequent recheck visits and relapses of clinical signs. This can make allergies a frustrating condition for both clients and us as veterinarians. Since there can be a 4-5 week wait time for Dermatology referrals, here are some steps to take to keep your patients comfortable while awaiting referral: Cytology Early and…

Specialty Spotlight: Diskospondylitis – Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatments

Diskospondylitis – Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatments Christina Scanlon Isack, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology) Discospondylitis is an infection involving the intervertebral discs and surrounding vertebral endplates. This infection is most commonly secondary to bacteria, but we occasionally see fungal discospondylitis as well. Infection is generally thought to occur secondary to: Hematogenous spread (most common) with involvement of the urinary tract in many cases Foreign body migration, such as plant awns Iatrogenic infection following spinal surgery or a paravertebral injection (least common)  …

Specialty Spotlight: Nasal Disease in Dogs and Cats

Nasal Disease in Dogs and Cats Sara Arnold, DVM, DACVIM As the warmer months roll around, there also seems to be a recrudescence of nasal disease. The chronically sneezing, snotty dog or cat tends to be something that plagues owners and veterinarians alike. Many owners who present to our specialty hospital are looking for a nasal foreign body to be the source of all their evils, but (unfortunately for them and us) nasal foreign bodies are few and far between….

Specialty Spotlight: Clinical Approach to Lung Tumors in Dogs and Cats

Clinical Approach to Lung Tumors in Dogs and Cats Joseph Palamara, DVM, DACVS-SA Surgery of the lungs is typically pursued to address acquired pulmonary diseases, including lung lobe torsion, consolidated lung lobes and abscesses, traumatic and spontaneous pneumothorax, and primary/solitary pulmonary neoplasia. Primary pulmonary neoplasia accounts for 1% of canine tumors and < 1% of feline tumors. Adenocarcinoma represents about 60% to 70% of feline lung tumors, whereas carcinomas account for up to 97% of primary lung tumors in dogs,…

Specialty Spotlight: Considerations for the Senior Dog

Considerations for the Senior Dog Laura Perez, DVM, CVA, CCRT What is a senior pet? Unlike humans, where there is an accepted set age to demarcate a patient as elderly or geriatric, a sliding scale based on body weight can help assign age labels for dogs. For small dogs weighing less than 20 pounds, age 10-12 years is considered geriatric. For medium dogs weighing 21-50 pounds, this decreases to 9-11 years. Large breed dogs weighing 51-90 pounds are considered geriatric…

Specialty Spotlight: Feline Injection Site Sarcomas

Feline Injection Site Sarcomas Ariana Verrilli, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology) Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant mesenchymal tumors of the skin that are associated with vaccination in 1-16 of every 10,000 vaccinated cats.  FISS have been associated not only with vaccinations but also with a variety of other substances, including injectable steroids and antibiotics, microchips, and suture material.  It is suspected that the post-injection inflammation results in malignant transformation of the local mesenchymal cells and tumor development.  Tumor development can…

Specialty Spotlight: Heat Stroke

Heat Stoke Danielle Berube, DVM, DACVECC As we head into the warm summer months, we need to be prepared for an influx of patients suffering from heat stroke. It is important to remember that although brachycephalic breeds and dogs with laryngeal paralysis have an increased risk, any patient can suffer from heat stroke in the right conditions. It is also important to keep in mind that patients can present with a normal body temperature, especially if the owners have started…

Specialty Spotlight: Beta-blockers in the Management of Hypertrophic Heart Disease

Beta-blockers in the Management of Hypertrophic Heart Disease Andrew Waxman, DVM, DACVIM (Cardiology) Why are beta-blockers so commonly used in the management of hypertrophic heart disease? It is first important to remember the determinants of myocardial oxygen demand.  The amount of oxygen demanded by the myocardium is impacted by afterload (of which a large portion is blood pressure), contractility, and heart rate.  Oxygen starved tissue can promote myocyte necrosis.   It can also serve as a focus for arrhythmias, hence why…

Specialty Spotlight: Infected Corneal Ulcers

Specialty Spotlight: Infected Corneal Ulcers Keith Montgomery, DVM, DACVO As the summer weather heats up, our canine and feline patients are more active outdoors, and we see an increase in the number of traumatic corneal ulcers as well as other traumatic eye injuries.  Bacterial corneal infections also become more prevalent with increasing temperatures and humidity.  Common bacteria that infect the cornea include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas spp.  Clinical signs of a bacterial corneal infection include cellular infiltrate, delayed corneal healing,…