Medical Articles

Specialty Spotlight: Feline Injection Site Sarcomas

Feline Injection Site Sarcomas Ariana Verrilli, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology) Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant mesenchymal tumors of the skin that are associated with vaccination in 1-16 of every 10,000 vaccinated cats.  FISS have been associated not only with vaccinations but also with a variety of other substances, including injectable steroids and antibiotics, microchips, and suture material.  It is suspected that the post-injection inflammation results in malignant transformation of the local mesenchymal cells and tumor development.  Tumor development can…

Specialty Spotlight: Heat Stroke

Heat Stoke Danielle Berube, DVM, DACVECC As we head into the warm summer months, we need to be prepared for an influx of patients suffering from heat stroke. It is important to remember that although brachycephalic breeds and dogs with laryngeal paralysis have an increased risk, any patient can suffer from heat stroke in the right conditions. It is also important to keep in mind that patients can present with a normal body temperature, especially if the owners have started…

Specialty Spotlight: Beta-blockers in the Management of Hypertrophic Heart Disease

Beta-blockers in the Management of Hypertrophic Heart Disease Andrew Waxman, DVM, DACVIM (Cardiology) Why are beta-blockers so commonly used in the management of hypertrophic heart disease? It is first important to remember the determinants of myocardial oxygen demand.  The amount of oxygen demanded by the myocardium is impacted by afterload (of which a large portion is blood pressure), contractility, and heart rate.  Oxygen starved tissue can promote myocyte necrosis.   It can also serve as a focus for arrhythmias, hence why…

Specialty Spotlight: Infected Corneal Ulcers

Specialty Spotlight: Infected Corneal Ulcers Keith Montgomery, DVM, DACVO As the summer weather heats up, our canine and feline patients are more active outdoors, and we see an increase in the number of traumatic corneal ulcers as well as other traumatic eye injuries.  Bacterial corneal infections also become more prevalent with increasing temperatures and humidity.  Common bacteria that infect the cornea include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas spp.  Clinical signs of a bacterial corneal infection include cellular infiltrate, delayed corneal healing,…

Specialty Spotlight: Meningoencephalitis of Unknown Origin

Specialty Spotlight: Meningoencephalitis of Unknown Origin Laura Krzykowski, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology) There are a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases that can lead to encephalopathy in our canine patients. In this region of the country, we see autoimmune disease far more commonly than infectious diseases.  The subtypes of autoimmune encephalitis are named according to the type and distribution of inflammation seen on histopathology (Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis, Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis, Necrotizing Leukoencephalitis). Clinically, MRI and spinal tap results can overlap between these categories,…

Specialty Spotlight: Classifications of Shock

Specialty Spotlight: Classifications of Shock Madeline Libin, DVM, DACVECC There are several types of shock, but ultimately the definition of shock is consistent. Shock is the result of any condition in which the metabolic demand for oxygen exceeds uptake and utilization of oxygen. Most cases of shock are due to decreased delivery of blood to tissues. Shock is typically divided into categories that help explain why oxygen delivery is not matching demand. The box below outlines five broad categories of shock (Silverstein and Hopper 2015)….

Specialty Spotlight: Flash Glucose Monitors – the Cure for the Difficult Diabetic?

Flash Glucose Monitors – the Cure for the Difficult Diabetic? Sara Arnold, DVM, DACVIM (Internal Medicine) Difficult diabetics are exhausting. When we see a new consult for a diabetic on our internal medicine service, that appointment almost surely promises to be the longest one of the day. Between the extensive histories, comorbidities, dietary changes, review of insulin administration, storage, etc., the time invested in these patients is extensive. Frustratingly, determining the status of diabetic regulation can also be difficult. Fructosamines…

Specialty Spotlight: Minimally Invasive Surgery for Management of Lung Tumors

Minimally Invasive Surgery for Management of Lung Tumors Joseph Palamara, DVM, DACVS-SA Minimally invasive surgery is a constantly evolving field of veterinary surgery. Competency and expertise in minimally invasive surgery are requirements in the process of board certification in small animal surgery. Thoracoscopy, laparoscopy and arthroscopy are minimally invasive procedures which involve surgery of the chest, abdomen and joints, respectively. Advances in technology adapted from human surgery and innovations developed by veterinary surgeons have enabled a wide array of surgical…

Specialty Spotlight: Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension Cassidy Sedacca, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Cardiology) Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening condition widely present in veterinary medicine, yet largely underdiagnosed. Chronic upper or lower airway diseases are commonly diagnosed syndromes in dogs and cats, but few realize that long-term alveolar hypoxia created by such conditions often results in a silent transformation of pulmonary vasculature resulting in pulmonary hypertension.  Left untreated, pulmonary hypertension can result in irreversible pulmonary and cardiac changes, clinical deterioration, right-sided heart failure, and death. Luckily,…

Specialty Spotlight: Is Conservative Management of Cruciate Disease a Viable Option for Your Patient…or Owner?

Is Conservative Management of Cruciate Disease a Viable Option for Your Patient…or Owner? Laura Perez, DVM, CVA, CCRT At the risk of opening an enormous can of worms, I’ve decided to give my 2 cents on conservative management of cruciate disease.  Ask many vets and most surgeons and they are going to tell you that surgery is the only viable option.  Ask another group of vets or those that strictly do complementary therapy and they are likely going to tell…